Power SiP is a power module integrating controller, driver, and MOSFETs in a single package for a complete power system (such as DC-to-DC converters). The first complex SiP for wireless in production was introduced by Infineon in 1998.
Semiconductor power switches can be classified as uncontrolled, semi-controlled, and fully controlled. Power diodes are uncontrolled switches, which start conducting when forward biased, and cease to conduct when the current changes its polarity. SCRs, triacs, and BCTs are semi-controlled switches that can be triggered into conduction (“fired”) when forward biased. Once fired, the devices cannot be extinguished by a control signal. Most common fully controlled switches are GTOs, IGCTs, power BJTs, power MOSFETs, and IGBTs. The GTO and IGCT can be fired in the same way as the SCR, but they can be extinguished by a strong negative gate current pulse. The current in the BJT, MOSFET, and IGBT can be linearly controlled, but to mini- mize losses they are operated, like all switches, in the on–off regime only. BJTs are current controlled, while power MOSFETs and IGBTs are voltage controlled, thus requiring a negligible amount of gate power.
- Power diode
- Power diode is a uncontrolled semiconductor power switche.
- Example High-Power Diodes: ABB 5SDD 31H6000, Powerex R6012625
- Silicon-controlled rectifiers (SCR)
- Gate turn-off thyristor (GTO)
- Integrated gate commutated thyristor (IGCT)
- Power bipolar junction transistor (Power BJT)
- In recent years, power BJTs, especially the high-rating ones, have been losing their market share to other switches, particularly the IGBTs. The voltage-controlled IGBTs possess all the advantages of BJTs, without the weaknesses of the latter devices, such as the second breakdown or the current-controlled switching. Thus, the IGBTs are perfectly suited for most of the applications where power BJTs have been employed.
- Metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (power MOSFET)
- Power MOSFET is a semiconductor power switch characterized by the highest switching speed. Three electrodes of the MOSFET, the drain (D), source (S), and gate (G) correspond to the collector, emitter, and base of the BJT, respectively. Power MOSFETs are available with the voltage and current ratings of up to 1.5 kV and 1.8 kA.
- Insulated-gate bipolar-junction transistor (IGBT)
- IGBT are hybrid semiconductor devices, combining advantages of MOSFETs and BJTs.
Wide BandGap Power Devices
The common wide bandgap materials, the silicon carbide (SiC), zinc oxide (ZnO), and gallium nitride (GaN), have the bandgaps of 3.3–3.4 eV. Several companies, such as Cree (USA), Fairchild (USA), Infineon (Germany), Powerex (USA/Japan), STMicroelectronics (Switzerland), or Toshiba (Japan), are increasingly involved in the development of the SiC market. The already manufactured SiC-based power devices include diodes, power MOSFETs, BJTs, and various power modules.