Through-oxide vias (TOV)
Through-oxide vias (TOV), or called 3D-vias, are vertical electrical connection (via) passing through a oxide layer, fabricated after oxide-to-oxide wafer bonding (i.e., postbonding via-last process) and completely removing backside silicon. It is smaller to but shorter than the TSV, and comparable to the SuperContacts. TOV was developed by researchers at IBM Thomas J. Watson Res. Center (through face-to-back bonding), MIT Lincoln Laboratory (through face-to-face bonding) , and other groups.
3D ICs using TOV
In 2011, C.L. Chen et al. presented a wafer-scale three dimensional (3D) integration technique hybridize InP-based photodiode arrays with Si readout circuits by wafer bonding and TOV. The infrared (IR) photodiodes consisted of an InGaAs absorption layer grown on the InP substrate and were fabricated in the same processing line as SOI readout circuits to allow 3D integration in the Si fabrication facility. The finished 150-mm-diameter InP wafer was directly bonded to the SOI wafer and interconnected to the Si readout circuits by the TOV. A 32 × 32 array with 6-μm pixel size was demonstrated. The 3D integration of InP with Si wafers achieved the smallest pixel size, which is less than a half of that can be achieved using conventional flip-chip bump bonding technique.
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- C. L. Chen, D.-R. Yost, J. M. Knecht, J. Wey, D. C. Chapman, D. C. Oakley, A. M. Soares, L. J. Mahoney, J. P. Donnelly, C. K. Chen, V. Suntharalingam, R. Berger, W. Hu, B. D. Wheeler, C. L. Keast, and D. C. Shaver, “Wafer-scale 3D integration of InGaAs photodiode arrays with Si readout circuits by oxide bonding and through-oxide vias,” Microelectronic Engineering, vol. 88, no. 1, pp. 131–134, Jan. 2011. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mee.2010.09.020