Wafer bonding

www.3dic.org/Wafer bonding

Wafer bonding refers to joining surfaces of two wafers or substrates to each other by means of various chemical and physical effects at the interface. It provides necessary mechanical strength between stacked wafers with or without inter-wafer electrical and thermal connects. Wafer bonding is a powerful technology for fabrication of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), advanced substrates (such as SOI), 3D integration, heterogeneous integration, and electro-photonic integrated circuits (EPIC), etc.

W2W Bonding, C2C Bonding, C2W Bonding, and MultiChip-to-Wafer Bonding

Face-to-Face bonding Face-to-Back Bonding

Direct Bonding and Indirect Bonding

Metal Bonding

Bonding pair Application Bonding method Temperature Reference
Solder
Cu–Cu Thermal compression bonding
Cu–Cu SAB Room temperature
Al–Al
Ti–Ti
W–W

Dielectric Bonding

Bonding pair Application Bonding method Temperature
SiO2-SiO2 SOI,

3D IC

Hydrophlic bonding 300-400°C
SiO2–Si3N4 SOI (Si-on-nitride)
SiO2–Al2O3 GeOI
Si3N4–Si3N4 SOI (Si-on-nitride)
Al2O3–Al2O3 GeOI substrate[1],

LED[2],

Hydrophlic bonding[1],

SAB[2],

300°C[1],

RT[2]

Adhesive bonding 3D IC,

Photonics,

Semiconductor Bonding (without oxide interlayer)

Bonding pair Application Bonding method Temperature Reference
Si-Si MEMS SAB
Si-Ge
Si-GaAs
Si-SiC
Ge-Ge
GaAs-SiC
SiC-SiC


References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Z. Zheng, X. Yu, M. Xie, R. Cheng, R. Zhang, and Y. Zhao, “Demonstration of ultra-thin buried oxide germanium-on-insulator MOSFETs by direct wafer bonding and polishing techniques,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 109, no. 2, p. 023503, Jul. 2016. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4955486
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 M. Ichikawa, A. Fujioka, T. Kosugi, S. Endo, H. Sagawa, H. Tamaki, T. Mukai, M. Uomoto, and T. Shimatsu, “High-output-power deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode assembly using direct bonding,” Applied Physics Express, vol. 9, no. 7, p. 072101, Jul. 2016. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.7567/APEX.9.072101