Wide IO

www.3dic.org/Wide IO

Wide I/O Mobile DRAM is a low-power DRAM with high bandwidth comparing to LPDDR. Wide I/O DRAM is stackable with TSV and microbumps. Wide I/O DRAM can also be directly stacked upon a SoC (processor).

Standards

  1. JESD229: Wide I/O Mobile DRAM was published in Dec 2011 by JEDEC JC-42.6;[1]
  2. JESD229-2: WIDE I/O 2 (WideIO2) was published in Aug 2014.[2]


SDR Wide I/O 1

The 2 Gb single data rate (SDR) Wide I/O 1 DRAM having 4 channels with 512 I/O pins, developed by Samsung, was using 50 nm technology and stacking of two 1-Gb dies with TSVs and microbumps. The TSVs have with a 7.5-μm diameter and 40-μm pitch. There are 46 x 6 microbump pads per channel, with 20-μm x 17-μm size and 50-μm x 40-μm pitch. [3]

A single 1 Gb Wide I/O DRAM exhibits 330.6 mW read operating power during 4 channel operation (at 200 MHz), achieving 12.8 GB/s data bandwidth, which is 8 times data bandwidth compared to LPDDR and 4 times compared to LPDDR2, because of its 512 I/O pins. The measured I/O power per 1 bit data (power/bandwidth), is only 0.78 mW/Gbps, which corresponds to 4.5% of LPDDR’s. Reduction of I/O power comes from voltage and I/O loading reduction together with data bandwidth increase.

Comparing the 2-chip stacked Wide I/O DRAM to the single one, standby power is a simple sum of 2 devices, but DQ power increases about 1.5 because of output loading increase. Total power increases 14%.


TSV_0.JPG
Samsung’s Wide IO.


STATS%20ChipPAC_3D%20TSV%20stacked%20package.jpg
STATS ChipPAC and UMC's Wide IO stacked on a TSV-embedded 28nm processor test chip.

DDR Wide I/O 2

The Wide I/O 2 DRAM developed by SK Hynix has 512 I/Os, which is the same as the SDR Wide I/O DRAM, but by using double data rate (DDR) and operating at 1066Mb/s, its bandwidth achieves 68.2 GB/s, which is quadrupled compared to LPDDR4 (single-die comparison). Moreover, since Wide I/O 2 DRAM is stacked in a 3D structure with the DRAM controller (SiP type), the input/output capacitance (CIO) is decreased and a power efficiency of 28 mW/GB/s (3.5 mW/Gbps) in READ operation mode is achieved.[4]


Wide I/O 1[3] Wide I/O 2[4]
Manufacture Samsung SK Hynix
SDR/DDR SDR DDR
I/O pins 512 512
Channel 4 channel 8 channel
Clock 200 MHz
Operating Supply Voltage 1.2 V 1.1 V
Bandwith (single die) 12.8 GB/s 68.2 GB/s (1066 Mb/s x 512 I/Os)
I/O power per bit (READ mode, single die) 0.78 mW/Gbps 3.5 mW/Gbps
Capacity 1 Gb to 2 Gb 8 Gb to 32 Gb
Stackable layers 2 2
Microbump 20-μm x 17-μm size 20 μm in diameter
TSVs 7.5-μm diameter, 40-μm pitch

3D-SWIFT

See main article 3D-SWIFT.

Zhang et al. reorganized the Wide I/O DRAM core in their proposed 3-D SWIFT architecture, which employs a large number of small banks to enable greater bank-level parallelism.[5]

3-D WiRED

See main article 3-D WiRED.

3-D WiRED is a optimized Wide I/O DRAM architecture, aiming to reduce access latency and energy consumption.

References

  1. JESD229, WIDE I/O SINGLE DATA RATE (WIDE I/O SDR), https://www.jedec.org/standards-documents/docs/jesd229
  2. JESD229-2, WIDE I/O 2 (WideIO2), https://www.jedec.org/standards-documents/docs/jesd229-2
  3. 3.0 3.1 Jung-Sik Kim, Chi Sung Oh, Hocheol Lee, Donghyuk Lee, Hyong Ryol Hwang, Sooman Hwang, Byongwook Na, Joungwook Moon, Jin-Guk Kim, Hanna Park, Jang-Woo Ryu, Kiwon Park, Sang Kyu Kang, So-Young Kim, Hoyoung Kim, Jong-Min Bang, Hyunyoon Cho, Minsoo Jang, Cheolmin Han, Jung-Bae Lee, Joo Sun Choi, and Young-Hyun Jun, “A 1.2 V 12.8 GB/s 2 Gb Mobile Wide-I/O DRAM With 4x128 I/Os Using TSV Based Stacking,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 107–116, Jan. 2012. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JSSC.2011.2164731
  4. 4.0 4.1 Y. J. Yoon, B. D. Jeon, B. S. Kim, K. U. Kim, T. Y. Lee, N. Kwak, W. Y. Shin, N. Y. Kim, Y. Hong, K. P. Kang, D. Y. Ka, S. J. Lee, Y. S. Kim, Y. K. Noh, J. Kim, D. K. Kang, H. U. Song, H. G. Kim, and J. Oh, “An 1.1V 68.2GB/s 8Gb Wide-IO2 DRAM with non-contact microbump I/O test scheme,” in 2016 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC), 2016, pp. 320–322. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ISSCC.2016.7418036
  5. T. Zhang, C. Xu, K. Chen, G. Sun, and Y. Xie, “3D-SWIFT: a high-performance 3D-stacked wide IO DRAM,” (Best Paper Award) in ACM Great Lakes Symposium on VLSI, 2014, pp. 51–56, Houston, TX. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2591513.2591529